India
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Cholera in India
In its most severe forms, cholera is one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. It is closely identified with sanitation problems, particulary contamination of drinking water from sewage carrying the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

Cholera likely has its origins in and is endemic to the Indian subcontinent. The disease spread by trade routes (land and sea) to Russia, then to Western Europe, and from Europe to North America. Cholera is now no longer considered a pressing health threat in Europe and North America due to filtering and chlorination of water supplies, but still heavily affects populations in developing countries, including India as seen in the photographs from 1947.

The first major cholera pandemic lasted from 1816 to 1826. Previously restricted, the pandemic began in Bengal, and then spread across India by 1820. 10,000 British troops and countless Indians died during this pandemic. The cholera outbreak extended as far as China, Indonesia (where more than 100,000 people succumbed on the island of Java alone) and the Caspian Sea before receding. Subsequent pandemics killed millions more and spread the disease through much of the world.

Deaths in India between 1817 and 1860 are estimated to have exceeded 15 million persons. Another 23 million died between 1865 and 1917. Russian deaths during a similar time period exceeded 2 million.

- from Wikipedia, 2010
Map depicting the spread of cholera from the Indian Sub-Continent

Source: John Snow Archive and Research Companion
Cholera in India - Bombay funeral.

Source: Life photo archive /Google Images (available for personal and research use).
Innoculation - Cholera epidemic, India.

Source: Life photo archive /Google Images (available for personal and research use).
Cholera in India - exodus from Bombay.

Source: Life photo archive /Google Images (available for personal and research use).
Cholera in India - Bombay hospital scene, 1898.

Source: Life photo archive /Google Images (available for personal and research use).
Mass Migration, India.
Moslem refugee cholera patients in filthy condition at Infectious Disease Hospital upon their arrival after their long march fr. Delhi, India.
Location: Kasur, West Punjab, Pakistan.
Date taken: October 1947.
Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White.

Source: Life photo archive /Google Images (available for personal and research use).
Mass Migration, India.
Moslem refugee cholera patient w. child, getting intravenous glucose solution in the infusion room at Infectious Disease Hospital.
Location: Kasur, West Punjab, Pakistan.
Date taken: October 1947.
Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White.

Source: Life photo archive /Google Images (available for personal and research use).
Mass Migration, India.
Emaciated Sikh child suffering fr. cholera as it lies in filthy condition at Infectious Disease Hospital.
Location: Kasur, West Punjab, Pakistan.
Date taken: October 1947.
Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White.

Source: Life photo archive /Google Images (available for personal and research use).
Mass Migration, India.
Moslem refugee cholera patients in filthy condition at Infectious Disease Hospital upon their arrival after their long march fr. Delhi, India.
Location: Kasur, West Punjab, Pakistan.
Date taken: October 1947.
Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White.

Source: Life photo archive /Google Images (available for personal and research use).
Mass Migration, India.
Moslem refugee cholera patients in filthy condition at Infectious Disease Hospital upon their arrival after their long march fr. Delhi, India.
Location: Kasur, West Punjab, Pakistan.
Date taken: October 1947.
Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White.

Source: Life photo archive /Google Images (available for personal and research use).
Mass Migration, India.
Moslem refugee cholera patient breast-feeding her baby at Infectious Disease Hospital.
Location: Kasur, West Punjab, Pakistan.
Date taken: October 1947.
Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White.

Source: Life photo archive /Google Images (available for personal and research use).
Appears to be street fumigation.

Source: Life photo archive /Google Images (available for personal and research use).
Stone latrines in a 17th century palace
Padmanabhapuram Palace, built in 1601 CE, is close to the town of Thuckalay in Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu (south India). It is about 20 km from Nagercoil, and about 50 km from Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. This palace was once the capital of the State of Travancore. The palace is built in the Travancore architectural style and is famous for its 17th and 18th century murals, carved mahogany ceiling, colored mica windows, secret underground passages, and inner courtyards.

Padmanabhapuram palace covers an area of around 7 acres. Exquisite wall paintings; floors finished to a high polish with a compound of crushed shells, coconuts, egg-white and juices of local plants; and sunny courtyards with carvings and sculptures are some of the outstanding features of this sprawling palace. The complex consists of individual structures linked by a maze of corridors, colonnades, verandahs, and courts. It was constructed of teakwood and granite and stands within massive 30-foot stone walls, which kept Tipu Sultan at bay in the 18th century.

Source: Meenakshisundaram Natarajan, B.E., Assistant Executive Engineer, Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board, Chennai (erstwhile Madras), India.
Simple stone flush-out latrine from the 17th or 18th century in Padmanabhapuram Palace.

Source: Meenakshisundaram Natarajan, B.E., Assistant Executive Engineer, Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board, Chennai (erstwhile Madras), India.
Simple stone flush-out latrine from the 17th or 18th century in Padmanabhapuram Palace.

Source: Meenakshisundaram Natarajan, B.E., Assistant Executive Engineer, Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board, Chennai (erstwhile Madras), India.
Simple stone flush-out latrine from the 17th or 18th Century in Padmanabhapuram Palace in south India (close to the town of Thuckalay in Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu).

Source: Rrjanbiah, Wikimedia Commons
Toilet, Padmanabhapuram Palace.

Source: Mimi Anderson / smee_me, Creative Commons.

Link to original flickr photo
Water Works

Located in Articles - India:

See The Waterworks of London (Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird, Industrial Publisher, 1868). Pages 137-151 include information about Bombay and Madras water works.

Also see Drainage of Madras.

Kilpauk Water Works, a water pumping facility at Madras (now Chennai) in south India, which has supplied water to the citizens of Madras since 1914 (and is still in use).

Source: Meenakshisundaram Natarajan, B.E., Assistant Executive Engineer, Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board, Chennai (erstwhile Madras), India.
Inaguaral sign of Madras Water Works, dated December 17, 1914.

Source: Meenakshisundaram Natarajan, B.E., Assistant Executive Engineer, Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board, Chennai (erstwhile Madras), India.

Special Engineer of the Madras Municipal Corporation, called the father of Madras water supply and sewerage.

Source: Meenakshisundaram Natarajan, B.E., Assistant Executive Engineer, Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board, Chennai (erstwhile Madras), India.

Miscellaneous
Latrine sign - Rajastan, India

Source: pietrolambert / Pietro Lambert, Creative Commons

Link to original flickr photo
Mobile toilet van, Kovalam, Kerala, India.

Source: Peter Fristedt, Creative Commons

Link to original flickr photo
Vintage Portable Toilet - Ancestral Goa Tour, Goa, India

Source: AaronC / Aaron C, Creative Commons

Link to original flickr photo

   


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